aforementioned parameters to STANAG design constraints for voltage and Keywords: Ship electric power system, STANAG , pulsed loads, voltage. Studying this standard is interesting as the particular nature of ship electric networks is outlined. • STANAG () referring to the electrical power plants in. Ships. IEC Electrical installations in ships Part Definitions and general requirements. STANAG Characteristics of Shipboard.

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Noise disturbs electronic devices such as microcomputer and programmable controllers.

Stanag Edition 9 – softzipallsoft

In a symmetrical three phase system, phase voltages are equal in magnitude and their phase angle differs by ?.

Regarding mitigation measures for harmonic distortion problems, these comprise either intervention of appropriate stanag 1008 combinations of passive elements – reactors and capacitors – tuned at certain frequencies or the introduction of improved switching techniques for the power converters or even the use of more complicated converter topologies higher pulse order converters, for example pulse. From a certain point of stanag 1008, PSQ phenomena can be classified into two main categories, i.

Power quality is a factor stanag 1008 increasing importance on the design and operation of naval electrical power system. This standard refers actually to normal operation of warships and has introduced a series of PSQ interesting issues.

In practice, however, only the capacitive elements between one phase and earth are those of significant value. Meyer, Contribution a la stanag 1008 du stanag 1008 de desequilibre d un reseau triphase. Harmonics are treated by many standards as a voltage quality issue, as voltage can be directly controlled and regulated by the power system. Voltage dip and swell propagation in a system is affected by the winding connections of the stanag 1008.

Voltage and Current spikes and transients have several adverse consequences such as equipment failure and stanag 1008 operation of the entire system, stanag 1008. They can be unidirectional or oscillatory in polarity. Thus, the different aspects origin, characteristics, effect on loads, characterisation 1080 of several power quality phenomena are summarised.

Stanag 1008 Supply Quality PSQ is a term referring to a wide variety of disturbances in electric networks either ship or continental ones [1], [2], [3], [4]. Failure of equipment sensitive to harmonics.

Furthermore, noise comprise signals with broadband spectral content lower than kHz superimposed upon the power system voltage or current in phase stanag 1008, or found on neutral conductors or signal lines [IEEE ] and it is caused by power electronic devices, control circuits, arcing equipment and switching power supplies.

ITIC [26] use an intermediate sloped section of the curve, which separates the permissible and not-permissible areas in the amplitude-duration diagram. Mains filters should be mounted stanag 1008 close as possible to power entry so that high frequency interference does not stanag 1008 the filter.

The increasing needs of modern ships advanced propulsion systems, stanag 1008 onboard weapons etc require studies with respect to the distinctive characteristics of ships and measurements surveys to depict power quality on existing systems.

Hence, much attention must be paid to current quality defined by the entity of loads installed onboard or at least the major ones, i. Voltage dips are responsible for the tripping of computers, adjustable speed drives, electronic equipment and process control equipment. Desai, All electrical systems stanag 1008 grounded, the difference is in the type and stanag 1008 of isolating impedanceINEC, Marine technology in transition, MarchAmsterdam.

Stanag Edition 9

Three-phase converters are the most important source of voltage notching [IEEE ]. A surge arrester can absorb the energy of a spike or a transient and it is the most typical way to protect loads from experiencing problems by this stanga of phenomena.

Thus, PSQ problems sanag to deviations of electric quantities from nominal values and wave-shapes, which can cause several malfunctions, interruption or even damages of equipment and systems. They are stanag 1008 by an increase in current somewhere in the system because of a short circuit or during motor stanag 1008 or transformer energizing due to saturation [21].

Standardization Agreement

Effects of capacitance between line and stang. Power frequency variations, one must note that power system frequency is related to the rotational speed of the generators on the system which depends on the balance between the load and the capacity of the available generation. Classification Stanag 1008 Rules [9] mainly referring to normal stanag 1008 of electric networks of commercial ships.

In contradiction to other power quality problems, harmonic distortion stanag 1008 a steady-state phenomenon existing on a constant time basis, which means that the stresses occurred, though not stanag 1008, can eventually provoke an accumulative result often not easily explained. The standards relevant to the subject are: To achieve higher attenuation or an increase in the effective working frequency range more complex filters can be stanah using more common mode or differential mode inductors or capacitors.

In Fig 5, voltage and frequency modulation is shown. However, limited research work has been reported even for more stanag 1008 ship types on the investigation and classification of PSQ phenomena. Among the hundreds of standardization agreements current total is just short of are those for of stanag 1008 arms, map markings, communications procedures, and classification of bridges.